Here is one I expect to be very controversial...
On a solid wood electric guitar, the tone is in the tone wood.
The sound generated by the pickups, if the pickups are acting properly has little or nothing to do with the wood.
The iron in the string disturbs the magnetic field created by the magnets which in turn generates a tiny electric current in the coil. Disturbing a magnetic field is the most common way to generate electricity and it's how your power company does it.
The wood is not magnetic and has nothing to do with this. You can't generate electricity with 'tone wood' and a properly functioning pickup is not a microphone. Take the strings off, shout into the pickup as loudly as you can and see if your voice is coming out of the amp.
The tone is affected by a lot of things, mostly the pickup design, after that string composition, string height, picking technique, fretting technique, scale length (to a lesser effect), and anything that effects the vibration of the strings in that magnetic field. A solid guitar might vibrate a bit, but probably a thousandth of a percent as much as the strings, and I leaned in electronics that anything less than 10% is for all practical purposes the same.
OK, I know this is controversial, so I'm ducking for cover.
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