Good discussion. I've been thinking about this myself lately. Funny thing is, I'm can't really think of a "unique", new genre/style that doesn't exist somewhere, somehow. Microtonal stuff and time signatures are taken care of in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. FWIW I'm a huge fan of Balkan folk music. There's a lot there that's been largely ignored by the western world.
I agree, there are a lot of styles out in the world that haven't gotten traction elsewhere. Paul Simon's Graceland wasn't a "new" genre, but like they said in the old commercials for NBC..."If you haven't seen it before, it's new to you."
Thinking we do need some new instrument types to spawn new genres. But what? And it would have to become popular enough over time too...
I think that happened with rap (using turntables as musical instruments), and a lot of EDM just wouldn't sound right on kazoos and ukuleles
I'd like to see a controller like the LinnStrument get traction. It might not create a new genre by itself, but it can certainly extend the electronic genre into more expressive realms. Ditto the ROLI keyboard and a few other alternate controllers .